Fashion: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter… What a Doll

The birth of fashion magazines may have begun in 1321, when a small doll dressed in the latest fashion was sent to the English queen. The dolls became more frequent and those on the receiving end were the nobility. Like our seasonal fashion changes today, the dolls came at the beginning of the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons. The dolls originated in London, Berlin, Rome, Lisbon, St. Petersburg and of course… Paris. These dolls paved the way for the fashion industry as we know it today. When the doll custom evolved into pictures, they did not originate in Paris. They were created by a German painter, Jost Amman and published in Frankfort.

Suellen Ocean is the author of many books on diverse topics. Her books are available here:

What is a Deciduous Tree?

What is a deciduous tree? It’s a tree that loses its leaves in the fall. In the autumn, it loses all its leaves and becomes a wintry looking thing, one of the skeletons of winter along the landscape. It isn’t the frost that kills the leaves, it’s a natural process that the tree goes through while it makes chemical conversions through the winter, to return in the spring with a blast of bright green shoots that turn into the fresh greenery of the new season. The oak is a perfect example of a deciduous tree. However, the California Live Oak is an exception, keeping most of its leaves all winter long, leaving nesting and hiding places for birds and squirrels.  Suellen Ocean is the author of Acorns and Eat’em, a how-to vegetarian cookbook and field guide for eating acorns. Find it here:–Vegetarian-Cookbook/dp/1491288973